Collections Under COVID 2021-snap lockdown edition- Electronic Resources

Collections Under COVID 2021-snap lockdown edition- Electronic Resources

It’s the last day of Victoria’s snap lockdown. I’ve been back to working from home for two days and due to the snap nature of the absolutely necessary lockdown, this time I wasn’t able to collect any material from the PMI. Thankfully PMI staff have remote access to the onsite computers, so I am able to access the electronic resources. I was exploring them, trying to find something that I could use to write a blog post about, when I was struck by their diversity and complexity. So I thought, rather than use them as a resource for a blog post- why not make them the focus of the blog post? So that’s what I’m going to do.

The PMI is still very much a hard copy library, and the majority of material accessed by our members is the hard copy collection. That being said, we do have an extensive array of electronic material. Currently this is only available for members to access on the computers at the PMI, as it is only available on a physical sever rather than on the cloud. We are hoping to change this in the future, and make the out of copyright material available online to members.

Because it isn’t immediately obvious, many of our members aren’t aware of the electronic material, unless they are searching on the catalogue and electronic material comes up as a result. The exceptions to this are the highest use electronic areas the Sands and McDougall Directories, which we have members coming in specifically to use. Sands and McDougall Directories are post office directories. Essentially what happened was the company went round to every house in Melbourne originally, and then Victoria, and asked who lived there and recorded it. The State Library has digistised some, but not all, if you want to have a look

They are a fantastic resource for tracing people, or specific addresses. The earliest the PMI has is from 1860 when it was Sands, Kenny and Co.

We run up to 1942 with these directories electronically, though not all years are available, and have most of the rest on microfiche, which see a surprising amount of use, especially the ones from the 1970s. If you’re trying to find a person, it helps if they have an unusual surname. Trying to find a Smith or a Jones is like trying to find a piece of hay in a haystack. It’s also worth remembering that street numbers change if you’re tracking down a particular property- especially Chapel Street. You can usually find the place you are looking for because the directories are organised so they tell you which streets the addresses are between and the street names are less prone to change.

But the Sand and Mac Directories are the tip of the iceberg. Even just looking at the subset of directories you’ll also find street directories, other postal directories, a couple of medical directories, directories for other Australian capitals and directories from some rural towns. This is essential small scale primary source information.

Then if you step beyond directories, the rest of the electronic resources are divided into a number of categories. If you find one on the catalogue, it will be listed as location: library computers and the call number will be the folder you can find the resource in. So I thought I’d give you a bit of a rundown of the folders and what you’re likely to find within.

The folders are:

Audio recording: Mainly recordings of PMI and Prahran Historical and Arts Society (PHAS) talks, and a couple of interviews. Everything from Stonnington City Brass, to the origins of Toorak, to some PMI and PHAS AGMs. In fact if anyone is interested, you can hear the 1986 PMI AGM below- it includes a talk about Prahran Pubs and the creation of the local history side of the PMI’s collection.

PMI 1986 AGM

Births Deaths Marriages Indexes: These are by no means a complete births, deaths and marriages indexes. For those you should go to the Births Deaths and Marriages office for your state. These are some of the more specific ones though. For example Anglican Marriages in the districts and parishes of Alexandra and Yea 1859-1949 and St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church Beechworth. If it’s that level of specificity you’re looking for though, they can be incredibly helpful. You can see the introduction to St Andrew’s below.

Books: This is the big category. These are book in electronic formats and contains 804 items. Many of these you will also find in the hardcopy collection. There’s a lot of digitised versions of early history books, like the cyclopedias of each state and early pictorial histories. There’s also more recent born digital material, as more people begin to make work only available electronically, such as the Message Tree Project and the Ireland Family of Boronia, both of which were only added in 2020. Remember all this material is discoverable on the catalogue the same as the hard copy books. Electronic books are an area we are expecting to see grow. Unfortunately their existence can be quite hard to keep track of because not everyone who makes something electronically thinks to lodge it with a the State Library or the National Library, which is one of the best ways for us to discover new material. On the flip side, electronic work is sometimes free, or at least cheaper than a hard copy would be. You can see the opening page of the Ireland Family of Boronia below.

Cemeteries: This one is fairly self explanatory- indexes of cemeteries from across Victoria ranging from Alberton to Yea. Some have headstone pictures and indexes of those buried there, others are scans of burial register books or a combination of all. You can see a page from the Barnawartha Burial Register below.

Census: Again, fairly self explanatory and in this case not extensive. We have information on the 1836-7 and 1838 Melbourne censuses and 1838 Port Phillip census.

Compilations: This one is a bit of a grab bag, it’s essentially electronic resources that fit across two or more other categories, or don’t quite fit anywhere neatly. Such as a history of a town and the history of a cemetery in together, or gold mining sites in multiple towns, or the Rotary Club of Bendigo, or Koondrook Tramway photos from 2004. As I said, a bit of a mixture. You can see one of the Adelong Falls Gold Mill Ruins information boards below.

Documents: Electronic material that isn’t books. Mainly historical articles. From houses in Carlton to Russian emigration.

Electoral Rolls: Not an extensive selection: 1899 Federal referendum, 1939 and 1946 Commonwealth electoral rolls for Victoria. We do have Ancestry as well which has access to further electoral rolls.

Enviro Stories: This is an interesting category. A few years ago I got permission from Enviro Stories to download their work and add it to the collection. Enviro-Stories was established by PeeKdesigns environmental education consultants in 2009. The program involves students learning about their local area and passing this knowledge on to others through storytelling. The program has proven to be a simple but effective concept that enables sponsors to engage students from throughout their region.

These are great local histories, with kids telling the stories of their local communities. You can see the opening page of Loving Lakes Entrance below.

Government Gazettes: Government Gazettes from the 19th century. We have a number of these in hard copy as well. They are essentially a record of what the government was doing. They are still created today. For interests sake you can find the modern ones at

Heritage Studies: Each year we go through the websites of every council in Victoria and determine if there are any new heritage or conservation studies available, then download them and save them to the server. These are invaluable, especially to heritage architects and anyone writing new heritage studies. They are also great primary source information and as they don’t stay on the council websites indefinitely they can be very hard to find. Having them in a central repository, makes them significantly more accessible. We stretch the definition of heritage studies to include heritage reports such as the one from Malmsbury below.

Indexes: Not a complicated one. Indexes to books in the PMI collection, some compiled by volunteers, others scanned from the books to make them more accessible.

Legal Records: This one is a small category that might expand one day. At the moment it just holds the Petty Sessions of North East Victoria.

Newspapers: We only have three: Lang Guardian, Mount Alexander Mail and Ruffy Review. As a rule we don’t collect newspapers because they are covered in such detail by the State Library.

Periodicals: These are the newsletters and journals of pretty much every historical society in Victoria. We collect them and index them so they are key word searchable on the catalogue. At the moment the majority of the periodicals from the 229 organisations are also available in hard copy in the library. We are in the process of reviewing this policy. This is the small scale of local history, locals telling their local stories and one of the keystones of the PMI’s collection.

Pictorial Collections: This is another smaller collection, we have Mortlake, Bindi Station, Chapel Street, Dandenong, Golden Plains Shire Bridges and Whroo. You can see Piggoreet Bridge in the photo below.

Pioneers: Pioneer registers. Burra to Bendigo, Pioneers along the Hume, Queensland founding families, Shoalhaven, Wodonga, Darling Downs, Gosford and Moruya.

Police Gazette: Really useful source of information about anyone who interacted with the police in the 1800s. I’ve written about them on the blog before so I won’t go into detail here. My favourite parts are the incredibly detailed physical descriptions which can be invaluable if you can find an ancestor so described.

Rate Books: These are scans of rate books from Ballarat East, Mount Eliza, Prahran, Wodonga, Yackandandah and Yea. They can be quite hard to read, but if you’re trying to find out more about a specific address, or a specific person, they are incredibly useful. You can see a section of the Prahran rate book from 1856 below.

Schools: Records from a handful of schools and school districts: Belmont High School, GW Brown, Indigo Shire, Monbulk College, Schools of the Surf Coast.

Theses: These are theses from all the Victorian universities. We’ve had a volunteer going through all their repositories and downloading and saving the relevant documents. This is an ongoing project, but covers a wide range of Victorian and Australian history.

Vertical File: The Veritical File is our ephemera collection, from newspaper articles, to theatre programs, to cooking booklets, to pamphlets and brochures. The small scale of history that often gets lost. The majority of the Vertical File is actually in hard copy. We have a volunteer who is working on indexing and filing all the material and at some point in the future we hope to be able to scan more of it and make it accessible electronically as well. You can find out more about the Vertical File here and see some examples of the hard copy collection in the photo below

So that’s the break down of our electronic resources. As you can see they are varied and complex. So next time you’re in the library, come along and have an explore. We look forward to making some of them available to members through the website at some point in the future.

I hope you’ve found it interesting


PMI Collections Librarian February 2021.

Book Review: Sentenced to Debt: Robert Forrester First Fleeter by Louise Wilson

Book Review: Sentenced to Debt: Robert Forrester First Fleeter by Louise Wilson

An updated and expanded edition of this authoritative work on Robert Forrester. He was sentenced for a relatively minor crime, along with many others, to sail halfway across the world as part of the First Fleet to Australia. After arriving on 26 January 1788 to a strange new world within three years Robert was granted some land in the Hawksbury Valley. Historian Louise Wilson has revised her biographical account of Robert Forrester, which was first published in 2009, with new sources to provide a fascinating account of a hard life in a land which seemed alien to someone who largely grew up in and around London. Louise has painted a picture of the day to day life of the ‘first fleeters’ but importantly also expands on interactions with local Aboriginal inhabitants – both positive and not so – and also the shaping of a place with a rich indigenous history by people with completely different ideas and philosophies to the land around them.

This book has an extensive bibliography and list of sources and is expertly indexed. The writing is crisp and entertaining yet informative and you find yourself immersed into that time of considerable change for everyone.

An excellent source for anyone interested in early white settlement of NSW and its impacts on existing indigenous culture and the land itself.

Steven Haby
Secretary Librarian

PMI Creative Writing Competition

PMI Creative Writing Competition

2021 Creative Writing Competition for Children aged 4 – 12

Presented by the PMI Victorian History Library in partnership with the Victorian Government.

We understand that celebrating Children’s Week was a little difficult in 2020 and so we are re-opening our free online Creative Writing Competition for Children on the 1st February 2021!

We believe that sharing stories with friends, family and role models can help us to feel safe, and, also help people into the future remember the important and interesting things that happened to us. So, we are asking for children over the summer, or when school returns, to: 

Type up a story told to you by a grandparent, parent, carer, aunty, uncle or elder, about their friends when they were your age. What kind of adventures did they get up to? How were things different then? What made their friendships special?

  • The competition will re-open Monday 1st February 2021.
  • The competition will close Thursday 1st April 2021 at 4pm.
  • In light of coronavirus (COVID-19) this competition is online and to take part entries must be emailed to 
  • Entry is free but each entry is limited to 1 page.
  • A $100 prize for 1 winner in each age group is available: 4-6, 7-9, 10-12. 
  • All entries will be published in a book to be held in the PMI’s library collection.
  • The PMI will announce the winners on Friday 30th April 2021.

If you would like to speak to someone for further information about the PMI and our activities, please email or call the PMI Victorian History Library

Tue, Wed or Thur 10am – 4pm on 03 9510 3393.

Judges will be author and writing educator Rafael Ward and performing artist and Library officer Riannon Berkeley. Our judges will pick the story that: Best captures an interesting historic experience; Has a good grasp of ideas and language appropriate to the child’s age; Is engaging and tells a narrative story.

We’d love to make this available to as many children across Australia as possible so please share with your networks and any children in your educational, work, social or family circles who might be interested.

Terms and Conditions for Creative Writing Competition

Here at the PMI we are very interested in collecting historical stories – things that people remember happening in the past – we focus on collecting stories about people, places and things in Victoria, Australia and have done so since 1854…That’s 166 years! We want to be able to read your story and know that you wrote it (your adult can help with your spelling and with your typing, but the words should be your own). Then the PMI can publish all of the entries in a book for our library that people can borrow and read.

  • Competition opens on Monday 1st February 2021 and all entries must be received via email by 4.00pm on Thursday 1st April 2021 at 4pm. Winners will be contacted and delivery of their prizes organised on Friday 30th April 2021.
  • The work must be written by the child and not be significantly re-written or altered by an adult.
  • The author’s name should not appear on the story.
  • The title of the story and the age of the child should be on the top of the story above the heading.
  • All submissions must be a Microsoft Word Document or Apple Pages Document, no more than one typed page in length, in size 12, Times New Roman font.
  • All submissions should be emailed to with the heading Children’s Writing Competition. In the body of the email should be: The author’s name; the title of the story and a contact phone number.
  • No postal entries will be accepted.
  • The judges’ decisions will be final and no correspondence will be entered into. All entries remain the intellectual property of the authors.
  • By submitting your story, you agree for your work to be published, whole or in part, in: A book to be included in the PMI’s Library Collection with your first name and age. (For the protection of the children involved we will not post such content on the internet.)

Mulberry Hill

Mulberry Hill

Mulberry Hill was remodelled in 1926 by architect Harold Desbrow-Annear for Joan and Daryl Lindsay. It is an absolutely fascinating place to visit, because it has been left exactly as it was when Joan died in 1984, down to the pieces of soap in the bathroom which were specifically numbered. You can see them in the photo below.

Both Daryl and Joan Lindsay were important figures in their own rights. This post is going to be mainly about the house. The PMI does have a number of books about both Daryl and Joan and the wider Lindsay Family, including Joan’s autobiography Time Without Clocks and Daryl Lindsay’s The Leafy Tree My Family you can see Time Without Clocks below (The Leafy Tree was on loan). And you can explore the selection on the catalogue here.

We also have the excellent Beyond the Rock, which looks at Joan Lindsay beyond Picnic At Hanging Rock. It explores the life that she and Daryl lived at Mulberry Hill as well. You can see it below

Speaking of Picnic at Hanging Rock, one of the advantages of being a 166 year old library is that you sometimes end up with first editions of books that go on to become very famous, simply by being in existence when the book was written and buying it then. So we have a lovely first edition of Picnic At Hanging Rock. I especially like the intricate letters that start each chapter.

But this post isn’t about Picnic At Hanging Rock, or Hanging Rock itself. If you want to know more about Hanging Rock and the book you can find out more here.

So to return to Mulberry Hill. The PMI actually doesn’t have a book specifically on the the homestead. We have one conservation policy from 1998, and it gets mentions in several articles in historical society journals, a heritage study and one book on Victorian Heritage. So I want to pause here to talk a little about these sorts of mentions and why they can be useful. It also explains why we index our journals. As we have key word indexed our journals onto the catalogue I was able to discover that three National Trust journals from 2009, 2014 and 2017 each had an article on Mulberry Hill. In retrieving these from their boxes, I made a couple of pleasing serendipitous discoveries too (not just that they were exactly where they were supposed to be). In the 2009 journal, under the Mulberry Hill article, there was a picture of one of our committee members, Chris Michalopoulos with Dame Elizabeth Murdorch. In the 2014 journal there was an ad for the PMI! You can see both below, and I love how these sorts of discoveries can be made in the PMI’s very multifaceted collection. Our website and phone number haven’t changed either.

The articles turned out to be quite useful they were about: Mulberry Hill reopening in 2014, a donation to Mulberry Hill in 2009, and a long article from 2017 about Mulberry Hill on the 50th anniversary of Picnic At Hanging Rock. You can see the opening page of the final article below

From Discover Historic Victoria we have a short biography of the house and why it was so important to the Lindsays. Finally, from the Frankston Heritage Study, we have an examination of why the house has heritage significance.

This is the joy of our collection and catalogue, when you can use it to find all these disparate resources on one subject.

Therefore, while there is quite a lot of information, we do not have it all collated in one place. So one of the purposes of this post is to add to the collection, as I’ll be using my photos and information from my visit to the house in early 2019. I like the idea of being able to extend the PMI’s collection personally, in a slightly round about way, especially during COVID.

So, after what is actually quite a long introduction about how I found the information (always a worthwhile detour I think), I’ll return to Mulberry Hill itself.

I wanted to begin with a little background to Joan and Daryl Lindsay.

Daryl Lindsay came from the prolific Lindsay Family of Creswick in Western Victoria. Of the ten children, five went on to be leaders in Australia’s artistic world, including Norman Lindsay of Magic Pudding fame. You can find out more about the Lindsays here

Daryl Lindsay, or Sir Daryl as he became, was the ninth child, and a noted artist. He was also appointed director of the National Gallery of Victoria in 1941 and oversaw much of its collection growth. Mulberry Hill houses a number of his paintings. You can see one of his flower paintings and the vase that was painted in the photo below.

Joan Lindsay was born Joan a’ Beckett and married Daryl Lindsay in London on St Valentine’s Day 1922 which she described as “the only date I have ever remembered except 1066 and Waterloo”. She was a painter in her own right, but definitely became best known for Picnic At Hanging Rock which she wrote at Mulberry Hill in only 4 weeks. You can see the typewriter she wrote Picnic At Hanging Rock on below.

Mulberry Hill is a monument to the life Daryl and Joan built together. The house you see now is Joan and Daryl’s dream, but it was not the first house on the site. They found what would become Mulberry Hill when they were visiting friends in the area in the early 1920s. Joan described it as “The house of our dreams suddenly materialised under our eyes- or rather its roof and one chimney- it happened so quickly we hardly knew it had happened at all, at the exact moment in time and space when the corrugated iron roof of a four roomed weatherboard cottage at Baxter Victoria, Australia, caught and held for a moment the last pale light of the winter afternoon. In that moment the lines of our destiny were laid out as surely as steel tracks of the railway.”

They bought the house from the old couple who owned it only a few weeks later, naming it and the surrounding land Mulberry Hill after the sprawling mulberry tree in the yard. The original cottage dates to the 1880s but it was extensively remodelled by Annear, in the popular American colonial style. This work included additions purchased from Wheelan the Wrecker such as the slates, the upstairs balcony balustrade, the staircase and a few of the doors and windows. Daryl and Joan moved in, in 1926 and Mulberry Hill became the haunt of artists of all types. The Frankston heritage study has the National Trust describing Mulberry Hill as:

“A house of no architectural distinction but epitomising a phase of Australian culture due to having been frequented by many figures of the local and international art world and still containing a range of Australian paintings selected by or presented to Sir Daryl and Lady Lindsay”

While the house might not be as majestic as say Ripon Lea or Como, it does have its own charm. You can see some of the rooms in the photos below. As you’ll see they are not on a grand scale, but they do feel truly lived in.

The core of Mulberry Hill, is the artists who lived and worked there. Joan’s writing room in particular is quite striking as it is bare of anything that could be a distraction. She would write on a lambswool mat on the floor surrounded by a sea of paper, which she’d pin together and later type up on her typewriter. You can see the room in the photos below

Daryl Lindsay’s light filled studio with its paint palates and incredibly comfortable looking daybed is also a testament to his work as an artist, much of which also adorns the walls at Mulberry Hill. You can see the studio below.

The other defining feature of Mulberry Hill, is that when I say that it was left exactly as it was when Joan Lindsay died in 1984, I mean it. Her shoes are still beside the bed, Daryl’s jacket still hangs in one wardrobe (he died in 1976) and Joan’s clothes in the other, their beds are still made up, the nicknacks are on the shelves in the kitchen and as I mentioned earlier, the soap is catalogued.

Mulberry Hill, is not the best known of the National Trust’s properties. In fact is was actually closed for some time, reopening to the public again in 2014. It is still in somewhat of a fragile state- you can’t wear shoes inside hence any of the bare feet you might see in my photos- but if it weren’t for COVID it would be open now. It is a house and grounds with an odd atmosphere, but one that was very clearly a beloved home as well as the residence of two acclaimed artists. Interestingly enough, for a post that was intended to be mainly about the house itself, I have in fact written a post mainly about the influence of Joan and Daryl on the house and the imprint that they have left there, and I think, ultimately, that is as it should be.


Time Without Clocks:

Beyond the Rock:

Discover Historic Victoria:

Trust Spring 2017:

National Trust Magazine 2009 and 2014:

Mulberry Hill Conservation Policy:

Frankston Heritage Study:

Picnic At Hanging Rock:

Site visit 2019

The photos are all copyright Ellen Coates.

Australian Children’s Book Illustration

Australian Children’s Book Illustration

The work of our favourite children’s illustrators stay with us indelibly. Everyone will have favourite illustrators, even if they don’t realise it. It might be May Gibbs with her adorable gum nuts (I was always afraid of the banksia men) or my personal favourite Alison Lester (I’m currently drinking tea out of a mug with illustrations from Magic Beach). These books and their illustrations will always be cornerstones of our childhood.

Children’s book illustrations have a long history in Australia, and this post is not going to go into immense detail. We have two excellent books on the subject and, when the library opens again, I highly recommend borrowing them if you’d like to know more.

children's books

I’m going to go through some of the history of the origins of Australian children’s illustration, and then I’ll have a look at some of my favourites.

I want to begin by saying that Australia already had a rich tradition and history of storytelling before the colonisation. Indigenous Australians were the original storytellers, well before children’s stories began to be written in books. I believe it is worth remembering that tradition as the bedrock on which Australian storytelling is based.

Western children’s illustrations depicting Australia began early, before Australia was colonised. The expeditions of early explorers such as Cook were made into stories for children. As Australia was ‘discovered’ by Europeans, children’s books began to be set here, usually written and illustrated by people who has never set foot in the country. This led to illustrations that bore little resemblance to any real Australian landscape. The first children’s book set entirely in Australia was Alfred Dudley published anonymously in London in 1830 and telling the story of a father and his highly intelligent son settling in Australia. There were 8 copperplate engravings; none of which greatly resemble Australia at all.

Screen Shot 2020-09-03 at 3.53.26 pm

Adventure stories set in Australia were very popular in the UK by the mid to late 1800s. Like the early illustrations these tended to be overly romanticised and have very little to do with a real Australian landscape. You can see the Adventures of Ned Nimble in the image below. thumbnail_IMG_8475

Eventually, though, books illustrated by people who had actually been to Australia, or in fact lived in Australia began to emerge. Some of the early works include the Australian Christmas Story Book published in Melbourne in 1871 and the Australian Picture Pleasure Book published in Sydney in 1857. Both had actual Australian animals, looking vaguely like Australian animals. Interestingly, one of the first books for children published in Australia that really took off was Cole’s Funny Picture Book– the first edition of which was published in 1879. It was still in print 112 years later when I received a copy of a reprinted edition in 1991. You can see my copy and the PMI’s copy in the photo below. It wasn’t a narrative illustrated book, but more of a compendium pulling together scraps from all over the place.


We have just received a new book about EW Cole, so I’m going to write a post about him and his book arcade in the next couple of weeks.

As more books began to be written in Australia the ‘bush’ became an almost mythical place and was the setting for the majority of stories. Probably the best known from the late 1800s and early 1900s are the illustrations of Frank Mahoney in Ethel Pedley’s Dot and the Kangaroo in 1899, May Gibbs’ Gum Nut Babies in 1916 and Dorothy Wall’s Blinky Bill in 1933. You can see all three in the images below. They continue to have a longevity through to today, with TV series and in the case of May Gibbs a whole plethora of things, from mugs to tea towels.

Dot and the Kangaroo was actually published the year after Edith Pedley’s death, the story she created was one of an almost mythical Australian bush, Dot gets lost in the bush and finds the kangaroo which guides her home. It is reminiscent of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland which had been published less than forty years before and left an indelible mark on western children’s literature. Frank Mahoney’s illustrations were realistic depictions of the Australian bush, without the European bent that many earlier books depicted.

You can find out more about Dot and the Kangaroo here

May Gibbs first wrote and illustrated stories about a little girl called Marmie amongst the chimney pots of London. During the war years in Sydney she produced bookmarks, calendars and pictures and created postcards featuring gum nut characters for Australian families and the Red Cross to send to Australian soldiers. But it was when she published Gum-Nut Babies and Gum Blossom Babies that her career really took off, and her illustrations remain some of the most recognisable today. You might have seen one of her Spanish Flu illustrations making the rounds recently on social media.

When she died in 1969, Gibbs left the copyright of all her works to the NSW Society for Crippled Children (which is now known as Northcott) and the Spastic Centre of NSW (now known as Cerebral Palsy Alliance). You can find out more about May Gibbs here

Blinky Bill wasn’t Dorothy Wall’s first book. She started out with Tommy Bear and the Zookies, which was published in 1920. Tommy is the beginnings of Blinky Bill, with some of his cheekiness and rapscallion nature. She went on to illustrate a collection of stories examining the origin and characteristics of some specific Australian plants and animals. She wrote and illustrated other books as well, including several fairy stories, but it was with Blinky Bill that she really made a connection. He first appeared as a side character in her illustrations for Brooke Nicholl’s Jacko the Broadcasting Kookaburra in 1933, but came out with his own adventures later in the same year. Subsequent stories followed over the years and Blinky became embedded in the Australian psyche. I think I can still sing most of the theme song of the 1990s television show. You can find out more about Dorothy Wall here

These books, and ones like them, began to feature Australian creatures and Australian landscapes with increasing accuracy (anthropomorphic animals and vegetation aside), and the foundation of Australian children’s book illustrations was formed.

This is a brief overview of the antecedents of children’s book illustrations in Australia. Now I want to have a look at a few of my favourites.

I’m starting with Mem Fox and Julie Vivas because their book Possum Magic, is probably the best selling Australian children’s book with more than 5 million copies sold. You can see my copy in the photo below.

For anyone who doesn’t know, Possum Magic tells the story of Grandma Poss and Hush, two possums. Grandma Poss has made Hush invisible to keep her safe, but Hush decides she wants to be visible again and together they travel all over Australia to find the foods that will break the magic spell. It’s a delightful tour through Australia with a plethora of Australian food, such as “they ate Anzac biscuits in Adelaide, mornay and Minties in Melbourne, steak and salad in Sydney and pumpkin scones in Brisbane.”

In the end it’s a Vegemite sandwich, a piece of pavlova and a lamington that does the trick. It was originally written as a university assignment about mice who travelled the world to make Hush visible, but Omnibus requested a rewrite with possums and and Australia. The result was illustrated by Julie Vivas and published in 1983 and the rest, as they say, is history.

You can find out more about Mem Fox here

Alison Lester has been writing and illustrating children’s books since 1979. I’m including her in this discussion purely because she is my favourite Australian children’s book author and illustrator. I can still recite large parts of Magic Beach from memory. You can see my copy in the photo below

Alison has written and illustrated more than 40 books for children. Most are set in Australia, and often have a strong emphasis on landscape. Magic Beach was first published in 1990 and tells the story of a group of children and their imaginative explorations of a beach. The beach is actually real, and you can find it at Walkerville near Wilson’s Promontory in eastern Victoria. You can listen to an interview with Alison about the ‘magic beach’ below.

You can find out more about Alison here

Bob Graham is another Illustrator and author who has made an enduring mark on the Australian illustrated children’s book scene. He actually studied as an artist first, at the Julian Ashton School of Art, and then travelled to the UK, but he returned to Australia in 1969 and began writing and illustrating children’s books. He’s won the CBCA Picture Book of The Year Award an astounding six times and his book A Bus Called Heaven has been endorsed by Amnesty International. My favourite of his books is The Red Woollen Blanket.

It tells the story of a little girl called Julie and the red blanket she is given when she was born. As she gets older she takes the blanket everywhere; until it is little more than a scrap, which she loses at school and then discovers that she’s grown up so she no longer needs it. You can find out more about Bob Graham here.

So that brings me to the end of my exploration of Australian children’s illustrated books. I’d love to go into more detail about the many fabulous books you can buy now, and which have shaped the minds and imaginations of Australian children over the decades, but that would be a book rather than a blog post. I’d love to know what your favourites are, so leave a comment and we can hopefully highlight some more of our fabulous children’s authors and illustrators.


Bottersnikes and Other Lost Things: A celebration of Australian illustrated children’s books by Juliet O’Conor

A History of Australian Children’s Book Illustrations by Marcie Muir

The Red Blanket by Bob Graham 1987

Possum Magic by Mem Fox 1990

Magic Beach by Alison Lester 1990

The Complete Adventures of Snugglepot and Cuddlepie by May Gibbs 1990

Cole’s Funny Picture Book No.4 1991

Cole’s Funny Picture Book No.1 72nd edition

The Complete Adventures of Blinky Bill by Dorothy Wall 1956

The photos are all mine except for the images from Alfred Dudley and Ned Nimble which come from A History of Australian Children’s Book Illustrations by Marcie Muir and the May Gibbs Spanish Flu image which comes from here

Collections Under COVID 4

Collections Under COVID 4

We’re at the end of another day, at the start of another working week so I thought it was time for another Collections Under COVID.

The highlight of last week was our first ever virtual trivia night, we had 60 people attending which was absolutely fantastic. Congratulations to our winner, Helen, who got to claim the kudos (no prizes unfortunately), but everyone seemed to really enjoy themselves which was the main thing. I had fun as quizmaster, it’s always great to have the chance to talk history, and putting together the trivia quiz (working from easy to evil) was an interesting exercise as well. We will be running future online events, so keep an eye on your email and our social media. We’ll also be posting some of the questions from the trivia on Facebook this week, if you’d like to follow along.

Today though, I’m going to talk about some of the books I’ve been cataloguing, both new and donated. As usual the idea is to give you a snapshot of some of what will be available for loan, or examining, once we’re open again in the hopefully not too distant future.

So to begin with a bit of a mystery….

Australasia 1Australasia 6

This book was donated to us some time ago anonymously. It hasn’t been in the collection because it was damaged, and one of our volunteers had just finished repairing it before this most recent lockdown. It came across my cataloguing desk today because of its size, I needed the space to store more catalogued books, but it is a book that has always had a bit of a puzzle to it. The book itself is beautiful and is a general history of Australasia written in 1879, it is very much of its time with the inherent biases and racial attitudes that comes with that. Though it is an excellent example of what thinking was like in the time and some of the images of early Australasia are stupendous. In this case though, what is most interesting about this particular book is the family tree inscribed in the opening pages. You can see it below.

Australaisa 2Australasia 3Now this is a family tree of the Cooke Family. We have no idea why it was inscribed in this particular book- using a bible for this sort of thing was much more common. Nor do we know which Cooke family it was. There are only two other clues. The book was presented to someone by a Mrs Hooper.

Australasia 5

And it was given as a present in 1912 in Benalla. Possibly to a member of the Cooke Family- but no surnames are used. Australasia 4

I love finding these sorts of things in books (though we did know about this one before I catalogued it today) and even if we never discover which Cooke Family this belonged to, I just like that the Cooke Family are indelibly a part of this book’s history. Though if someone out there does know, we’d love for you to get in touch at

So, putting the mystery aside for a little. I thought I’d briefly highlight some of the new books I’ve been working on. There’s a bit of a mixture today, this is by no means everything I’ve catalogued, but it does illustrate the variety of subject matters we handle. I’m going to start with Madame Weigel. Madame Weigel was a dressmaker who ran a fashion journal from Melbourne and was the first person to make and sell paper patterns in Australia. These patterns enabled women to make their own clothes in far wider varieties, and she adapted European fashion to the much warmer Australian climate. We already had the book on the life of Madame Weigel you can see it in the catalogue here: so when the author, Veronica, got in touch to say she’d put out books of the patterns themselves, I was delighted. You can see the two new books below.

Weigel 1Weigel 2

These patterns are the small scale history that can and should be essential to telling broader narratives and they are a lynchpin of women’s history. They can also be practically useful if you ever wanted to make some of your own clothes.

So now to something not totally different, but in a different area. The Lithographs of Charles Troedel


Like Madame Weigel Charles Troedel was part of the fabric of 19th century Melbourne and Australia. He was a professional lithographer and his work could be seen on a massive variety of 19th century printed material from posters to product labels. This book looks at Troedel’s work and places it in the context of the time it was printed. These lithographs are a fascinating social snapshot into the era, illustrating what people were seeing, using and experiencing in 19th century Australia. The lithographs are also reproduced in beautiful full colour. Just flicking through the book is a treasure trove; everything from advertising posters for the Druid’s Friendly Society, to wedding gowns from Robertson and Moffat, to quackery like Ralph Potts Well Known Magic Balm: Sure Pain Relief. You can see some examples below.

Tro4Tro3tro 2Tro1

I wanted to finish with one of the our local histories, or histories about a local area anyway. Kangaroo Grassland to Geelong Botanic Gardens and Eastern Park is a chronological pictorial history of the Geelong Botanic Gardens. It takes us right through the history of the gardens which were first gazetted in 1876. The book takes you through the development of the gardens, from the very first plans of the area and garden layout, right up to the introduction of Uki the Giant Blowfly for White Night in 2017. It is a fascinating history of the gardens, but it is also an excellent portrait of Geelong as you can see the city developing alongside the gardens. You can see the book in the photo below.

Geelong Bot

And that brings me to the end of today’s Collections Under COVID. I hope everyone is doing OK, and if you’ve got any questions about any of today’s books feel free to email me at



Collections Under COVID 3

Collections Under COVID 3

Another working week done and the first full week since we have not been able to be onsite at the PMI.

Last week I packed all the to be done cataloguing into my car, along with some indexing and brought it back so I could work from home. You can see my car and my new set up in the photos below. You might notice my trusty companion my Highland Cow Clementine on top of the bookshelf. In fact Clementine was such a hit from the newsletter that people have been emailing their work companions; including Wally the Wombat who goes on adventures.



So it’s been a week of cataloguing, some ordering and the most exciting thing: setting up a trivia night.

In this new lockdown, we can’t visit the library so we can’t scan or post material to patrons. Therefore, we wanted to make sure that we were staying in touch with everyone, and provide some form of the event program we would normally be running. We’re starting with a trivia night, which we’re quite excited about. So I’ve spent some of this week putting together trivia questions. I had a lot of fun putting together the power point; there’s 31 questions in four sections: Easy, Medium, Hard and Evil. You can see the opening slide in the  photo below.

Screen Shot 2020-08-13 at 4.17.23 pm

We ran a quick test with some of our volunteers yesterday, to iron out any technical kinks, and it gave us the chance to have some virtual contact with the volunteers which was lovely. I was also able to have my first go at playing Quiz Master, which was quite fun. We’re not playing for prizes, just for bragging rights, but we expect competition to be fierce 🙂

It’s the first online event we’ve run, so I’m sure there will be some teething problems, but it will be really nice to be able to connect visually with our members. We miss having you in the library.

The quiz will be at 7:30 pm next Wednesday the 19th of August. If you’d like to join in email and we’ll send you the zoom link and the downloadable score sheet. Hopefully see some of you there. Each question has a picture clue as well, and the first one is below- to whet you appetite so to speak.


We are looking at undertaking more trivia in the future- so if you have any inspired Australian history trivia questions feel free to email them to us at

Working completely remotely has been a big shift. The PMI staff meets on zoom at 10 each day Tuesday-Thursday. We discuss what we’re working on, and in this case how we are going to run the trivia. It’s a good way of staying in touch and capturing some of the bonhomie that you miss when you’re not working face to face with people. Also Steven and I have had a few longer discussions about British comedy, I’ve been listening to Fawlty Towers while I’m working, which has also been nice.

It has been hard not being able to answer queries, because we do not have access to the hard copy collection. We do however, when the server is holding up, have access to the electronic resources, so if there is any material you want from those please feel free to let us know. You can search by electronic resource on the catalogue.

In periodicals news, this week has seen us subscribing to Lighthouses Australia and their journal Prism. We’ll be collecting it in hardcopy going forward, so you’ll be able to borrow it from the library once we are open again, and there’s more than ten years worth of back issues to index, work we’ll be splitting between staff and volunteers. The cover of the most recent issue can be seen below. It will be key word searchable on our catalogue in the coming weeks.

2020-02 Light Houses Australia Prism

Speaking of the volunteers, some have continued working from home on everything from sourcing heritage studies, to indexing garden history journals, to scouring university repositories for theses and indexing our vertical file. As always their work is invaluable and we look forward to being able to welcome all the volunteers back into the PMI in the hopefully not too distant future.

The final aspect of this work week I wanted to talk about was ordering. Due to a grant, we have been able to begin ordering books again, on a small scale, for the first time since April. This has meant going back through the lists I’ve been keeping (which I’ve discussed in previous posts) and determining which are the most important, but also which are accessible. Some places- like the Mornington Peninsula Regional Gallery can’t send us their book because like us they can’t access the site- but we will receive a copy after lockdown ends.

The biggest order I’ve done is from a local bookstore, we always try to support local retailers where possible, but I’ve begun ordering some individual books as well. For example the Encyclopaedia of Adam Lindsay Gordon, of which there were only 45 copies printed, is on its way, as is Kangaroo Grassland to Geelong Botanic Gardens and Eastern Park: A chronological history. So we’re back to collecting the small stories, which I’m pleased about. For anyone wondering about the Bunbartha Tennis Club book I mentioned in an earlier post that also ended up in the newsletter- it’s on my list for next week (one of our members found a phone number for me).

So that’s the working week in Collections for the PMI at home. I want to finish with my favourite book from today’s cataloguing. Just because I love the title.


Maybe stalking could be a good iso activity, as long as we do it in under an hour and with in 5km of our home (and stick to animals not people).




Western Port Bay

Western Port Bay

IMG_8229In this post, which is the third in a series of more in depth articles using material from the PMI’s collection, I’m going to look at the history  and ecology of Western Port Bay. We have a number of books on the Bay and its surrounds and I’ll provide a reference list at the end. Western Port Bay, is the lesser known cousin of Port Phillip Bay, and together they form the Mornington Peninsula.

Screen Shot 2020-07-30 at 3.08.16 pm

To begin with the basics; Western Port Bay is formed by the heads of Flinders and Phillip Island. You can see the view looking over the ‘Nobbys’ at the tip of Phillip Island in the photo below.


The tides are much higher than Port Phillip, partly because the heads of the bay are much wider. There are also two major islands in the Bay; Phillip Island, which as I said forms part of the heads, and French Island. I’m not going to discuss either in detail, but we have a number of books on both if anyone wants to learn more. There are a number of smaller islands in the Bay as well.

To return to Western Port Bay itself. Before European colonisation Western Port Bay was, and remains, the land of the Boon Wurrung Indigenous people of the Kulin nation. They lived around the bay for thousands of years, using its bountiful resources including shellfish, birds, animals and plant life. When Europeans arrived, food sources were depleted, Boon Wurrung were removed from the land, disease spread, some were captured by whalers and sealers, some were incorporated into European society, some were rounded up and sent to missions, where culture and language was forcibly stamped out. Today the Boon Wurrung are rebuilding their language and continue to live and share their ancient culture. It is vitally important to note that this was not unoccupied land when the Europeans arrived. You can find out more about the Boon Wurrung at the Boon Wurrung Foundation 

The map below, which dates to 1940 and can be viewed as part of the PMI’s collection, gives you an idea of the scope of the Bay itself and especially the channels in the Bay.


There are a number of deep shipping channels in Western Port, which weave their way through equally shallow mud flats. This allows big ships to come into Hastings, and Cerberus (which is a navy training base), but lots of little boats make use of the many channels, waterways and even creeks that run around and in Western Port Bay.

The ecology of Western Port Bay is unique, the salt marshes are home to a vast array of migratory birds and Western Port boasts the southern most mangroves in the world, (Corner Inlet at Wilson’s Promontory might argue with that designation). The mangroves help prevent erosion, are fish nurseries,  have aerial roots and produce seeds which the tides take and you find scattered along the surrounding beaches. You can see some of the mangroves in the photo below, with Hasting’s white elephant the HMAS Otama.

IMG_7292It’s a slight diversion, but the Otama is worth explaining. In 2001 the Otama, a 1610 ton Oberon Class submarine, was purchased by the Western Port Oberon Association. It was intended to be the centre piece of the Victorian Maritime Centre in Hastings and they had it towed from Fremantle. Sadly, over the years the Maritime Centre has got very close to planning approval and the funding to build it, but it has never succeeded. In 2008, the Otama was put on eBay unsuccessfully. Hopefully, one day it will come out of the water as part of a state of the art Maritime Centre, but for now it sits waiting in Western Port Bay.

IMG_7971Putting the Otama aside, the ecology of Western Port Bay goes beyond the mangroves. There are salt marshes and seagrass beds of immense importance. The seagrass meadows are the driving force of the bay, they produce seed and and are pollinated wholly underwater, they provide protection and food for a wide variety of sea life. While it might not look so pretty when it is washed up on the beach, seagrass is the bedrock on which the ecology of the underwater world of Western Port is built.


Seagrass is not the only plant found in the bay, there is an extensive assortment, including some truly striking seaweed. IMG_8178

The creatures of Western Port are as versatile and varied as their plant companions. The Bay is home to numerous fish, and other creatures including dolphins, seals and sharks. There is multitudinous birdlife, with masked lapwings, pacific gulls, oyster catchers, ibis, swans, white faced herons and cormorants (amongst many others) being regular visitors. You can see some of the cormorants below.


There’s also many smaller creatures, usually found around the rock pools, including sea stars and crabs, along with many many different types of shellfish.


So Western Port Bay supports an interconnected web of life, including the humans who have come to live around its edges. So I’m going to finish with a little of the human history, post colonisation. George Bass was, arguably, the first European to ‘discover’ Western Port Bay.  He missed Port Phillip, coming from the wrong direction, and being short of supplies on the 5th of January 1798 sailed into Western Port. He described it as “I have named the place, from its relative situation to every other known harbour on the coast, Western Port. It is a large sheet of water branching out into two arms which end in wide flats of several miles in extent, and it was not until we had been here some days that we found it to be formed by an island, and to have to outlets to the sea- an eastern and a western passage.” He goes on to describe the tides, and the mud and is complementary of the surrounding land and soil, but goes on to say they had great difficulty finding good drinking water. Bass did not stay long in Western Port, leaving in the 18th of January to head back to Port Jackson.

So that was the beginning of European involvement with Western Port. The next encounter was when Lieutenant James Grant sailed into Western Port on the 21st of March 1801. It was stormy so he anchored in the lee of Phillip Island and went on to cultivate the land on Churchill Island, just off Phillip Island, planting Victoria’s first garden.  Grant spent 6 weeks in Western Port Bay taking an extensive survey, the botanist on the the trip also gathered new plants.

The English were not the only ones to survey Western Port, the French spent eight days in the Bay in 1802 surveying and determining if it would be viable place for settlement. The expedition was led by Captain Hamelin, this surveying is most likely where the name French Island comes from. They reported back that there was good anchorage, and it had potential, but fresh water might be an issue.

Formal settlement of the area took place in 1826 when the government decided to establish an official settlement. The Dragon under the command of Captain Wright was sent to Western Port. They came ashore near Rhyll, on Phillip Island and on December 3rd the flag was raised and a 21 gun salute was fired, officially announcing the first European settlement.

As time went on settlements came and went around the Bay, many not really taking hold. There were also fishermen and sealers aplenty and eventually  actual townships did develop around the Bay. There were also squatters moving into the area and large areas of land were sold off by the government as pastoral runs. The Bay has also been the site of industry, especially in Hastings which has an oil refinery and a reasonable sized port.

Today Western Port Bay is surrounded, for the most part, by small towns. Thankfully much of its natural beauty has been retained, and will hopefully continue to be valued into the future.



This is by no means a comprehensive look at the history of Western Port Bay, but hopefully it has given you a good idea of its importance from an ecological  and historical standpoint and if you’d like to know more, the books in the photo below have a wide range of information.

thumbnail_IMG_8232The photos are all mine.

Australian English- our idiosyncrasies of speech

Australian English- our idiosyncrasies of speech

There’s lots of words that Australians use, that are peculiar to the country or even the state. I’ve got into several good natured arguments over whether it is a potato cake or a potato scallop (it’s a potato cake, but I’m a Victorian so I have to say that), for example. Beyond rivalries over bathers vs togs, and devon vs stras and don’t even get me started on family words (I thought ‘zapper’ was a perfectly normal word for the TV remote for a long time), there is a lexicography that is Australian and has come about because of our mixed and fascinating history.

The PMI has a number of books on Australian words and Australianisms, including the Australian National Dictionary- which you can see below.

Australian national dictionary

We also subscribe to and index OzWords the journal of the Australian National Dictionary Centre. You can see the index on our catalogue here. 

Words come and go from the common vernacular, often shaped by events. For example I suspect ‘zooming’, in the context of online meetings, is going to be a new word for 2020. Probably along with isobaking- it was in true Australian tradition that isolation was almost immediately abbreviated and then added to other words. So I’m going to go through some of the books that the PMI has on the Australian vernacular, because as the Collections Librarian exploring the collection is always going to be a good thing, and explore some of the phrases and words contained within. I’d love if anyone has some other words they’d like to talk about if they could comment, and hopefully we’ll get an interesting discussion going.

Before I go any further I want to discuss the fact that English was not the first language spoken on the continent of Australia. There were hundreds of different languages, spoken across Australia for more than 60 000 years, before European settlement.

You can explore the indigenous languages of Australia visually through AIATSIS’ map,

You can also use AIATSIS’ AUSTLANG- which is a language database which covers not just the languages spoken, but all the other names they are known by. Both are worth exploring

Returning to English, I wanted to say a little bit about the The Australian National Dictionary (AND) which you saw in the photo above. The PMI holds the second edition, which was published in 2016. The AND is an historical dictionary, which means that each entry begins with “the oldest sense of the word and moves through to the most recent sense”. This differs from a general dictionary, which will begin with the most common usage of a word and move to the less common. The AND is modelled on the Oxford English Dictionary, in the historical model. The AND is essentially a biography of the language and the people who speak it, which means it contains both some fabulously obsolete words alongside new and modern words, it also contains a lot of slang, and as it’s an Australian dictionary- this means a lot of abbreviations.

For example: Aggie- an agapanthus- first mentioned 1988 in the Sydney Morning Herald ‘the aggies are coming into bloom’

I also like Ballarat lantern- a makeshift lantern formed by removing the base of a bottle and inserting a candle end first through the bottle into the neck. The first mention is 1875 from Wood and Lapham in Ballarat, but by 1887 it was being used in the Brisbane Courier, which just shows how, even what would seem to be a localised geographical word, can travel.

Another phrase which caught my eye, is emu bob:  the act or process of picking up litter, a group of people doing this, the act or process of searching an area of the ground for something. I particularly like this one, because it is so Australian and so evocative. You can just so easily visualise how it would look.

Modern political concepts also make an appearance  such as Pacific Solution- which dates from 2001 and outlines government policy in regards to Asylum Seekers.

It’s very easy to get lost in these dictionaries, scanning through them, and discovering new words, old words and everything in between. I wanted to finish my exploration of the AND with some rhyming slang: Pat Malone. The phrase it usually gets used in is, ‘on one’s Pat Malone’ meaning alone- it feel appropriate for our current isolating circumstances. Its earliest mention the AND can find is from 1900, when it is used in a Hobart newspaper. It’s possible the phrase comes from an Irish ballad about a Pat Malone who suffered a series of misfortunes, but no one is entirely sure.

So, to move beyond the dictionary; the other books I’m using to discover words and phrases are:

All these books look at much more specific realms of English in Australia.

So I thought I’d start with Lily on the Dustbin, which looks at slang of Australian women and their families. I picked this one, because ‘women’s words’ can sometimes be seen as less important, or frivolous. So I’m glad there is a book dedicated to them, and there are some real gems:

Putting make up on: “to put on your face”

Annoying children: “a pain in the pinny”

Trying to get children to behave: “birds in the their little nests agree”

Describing unkempt hair: “hair like a birch broom in a fit”

A blunt knife: “you could ride to Bourke and back on that knife and it wouldn’t cut your bottom”

A lot of the idioms are around house, family and domesticity, but not always, and some were shaped by the concept that women were not meant to swear, so they came up with more inventive but not invective phrases.

The 1819 Dictionary of Criminal Slang has a whole new gamut of words, this one is really interesting because it is the start of where a lot of our Australianisms are born.

I particularly like:

Go-alonger: A simple easy person, who suffers himself to be made a tool of and is readily persuaded.

Morning-Sneak: Robbing private houses early, by slipping in the door when the servants or shopman are occupied getting ready for the day.

Resurrection-Cove: Stealer of dead bodies

Cat and Kitten Rig: A game of stealing pewter pots from public houses.

Blow The Gaff: To reveal a secret.

Now I can’t see much use for some of these in today’s speech, but I could see Go-alonger making a comeback

Furphies and Whizz-Bangs: ANZAC slang from the Great War, has some other excellent examples, some which have become common now and others which have been completely forgotten.

Bumf: Now used to mean essentially useless stuff, it comes from bumfodder, slang for toilet paper and the ANZACs used it to mean official forms, paperwork and bureaucracy.

Furphy: Still used today to mean a rumour, or a lie it comes from the Furphy made water carts in World War One where soldiers would gather to swap tales and stories.

Hop the bags: To go over the top

Flybog: Jam- comes from the idea that it attracted flies. (probably not one condiment companies will be trying to revive)

Clefty: To steal, probably comes from the Arabic word kalifa which means to become brownish-red in the face.

Lost For Words brings together words that Australians once used everyday but have since fallen out of favour.

Strike me pink, yellow and blue, I’m an Irish cockatoo: Surprise

Wake up, Australia, Tasmania is floating away: Pay attention

It’s money for old rope: A no brainer

The creaking hinge creaks the longest: Someone who is always sick- essentially ‘they’ll outlive us all’

If his brains were dynamite they wouldn’t blow his hat off: Stupid

The final book we’re looking at is The Pronunciation of English in Australia. This one is much more technical and seeks to explain things like vowels, diphthongs, stress and rhythms. So I’m not going to go into detail about that here, but I will discuss briefly the ‘general impressions’ of Australian speech it outlines- keep in mind it was written in 1947

They do outline that these are sweeping generalisations and largely criticism.

Australian speech is “ugly, lazy and slovenly, nasal, drawling, not clear (lots of mumbling), cockney, marred by lip laziness.”

This is often how Australian, or really ocker (to use another Australianism), speech is viewed from outside Australia, I’d actually also throw in uncultured. None of this is true of all Australians and the way we speak and these assumptions have led to some truly awful Australian accents on movies and TV. It also leads to pejorative assumptions about a person before you’ve actually listened to what they’re saying, which is something to be avoided.

I think what all the books make clear, is that even if the ‘tone’ of Australian speech may be a bit grating to some, the words and phrases that have come to be uniquely Australian  are certainly filled with colour, history and for me a really vivid visual layer.

I want to finish with a brief discussion about a phrase that has gotten me many a blank look. Making a wigwam for a goose’s bridal- essentially you use it when someone asks you what you are doing, and it’s blindingly obvious. It isn’t in common usage these days, I picked it up from my family and when I use it automatically I’ve had some very odd looks. It probably originates from Britain or Ireland in the 16th or 17th centuries, there’s arguments over exactly what, if anything, it means. The ‘goose’ is possibly a term for a prostitute, or it might be mother goose of fairytale fame. Wigwam, seems to be a bit interchangeable with wing wong, or whim wong, or whim wham, it is also debatable whether it was originally bridal of bridle- bridle possibly making more sense. Whatever its origins or usage, I love that in one form or another this completely random phrase has been a part of Australian language, it typifies good Australianisms for me; colourful, visual, arguable origins and not always making complete sense.

You can see all the books I used on the PMI Catalogue. The links are below

Lily On The Dustbin:

1819 Dictionary of Criminal Slang:

Lost For Words:

Furphies and Whizz Bangs:

The Pronunciation of English in Australia:

The Australian National Dictionary











Collections Under COVID 2

Collections Under COVID 2

Another week done, so it’s time for another Collections Under COVID.

Although the book budget is still frozen, we’ve been lucky enough to receive some brand new books as donations in the last week or so, and I wanted to highlight them and discuss how they fit into the collection.

I’m going to start with In The Name of Theatre: The history, culture and voices of amateur theatre in Victoria by Cheryl Threadgold.

Theatre Heritage

This book came out of Cheryl’s PhD thesis and she actually did quite a bit of research for the book at the PMI. It’s always wonderful to see the outcome when PMI resources have been used, it reinforces for us why the collection is so important to so many people.

In The Name of the Theatre covers the full gamut of amateur theatre in Victoria, from the goldfields right through to COVID-19, so in itself it is a valuable addition to the PMI’s collection. This is the small scale of history and I love some of the stories, like Lola Montez being so well received for her spider dance in 1856 in Ballarat that gold nuggets were thrown onto the stage. The book covers amateur theatre from all over Victoria and with its excellent index will be a vital resource for anyone researching theatre history at the PMI in the future. We also really appreciate Cheryl’s inscription in the front of the book. in the name of the theatre


Books like In The Name of the Theatre  are important to the collection because resources about entertainment are part of the cultural touchstones that make up our society. You can read more about the entertainment resources at the PMI in the Collection Corner in our February 2019 newsletter

The other two books I wanted to discuss are Bundjil and Barraeemal which you can see below.


These two books are both stories by Boonwurrung elder Carolyn Briggs, told with the Balnarring Bubups, the children of Balnarring Preschool.

They’re both gorgeous publications in their own right, with photos of the kids interwoven through the story, but the PMI collects this sort of material for another reason. Books telling Indigenous stories, especially including Indigenous language in Victoria are rare, and many of them are now being produced with or for children as part of teaching the new generations. This makes them vitally important parts of the PMI’s Indigenous collection, as we move to expand it and ensure that the Indigenous history of Victoria is at the heart of the PMI’s collection.

In this case the stories of the children as also valuable, as they are exactly the small scale of history we want to preserve at the PMI.

All three of these books will be for loan, when we are open again.

See you all in the library in the not too distant future (hopefully)